What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)?

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the study of how to make computers do things which,  at the moment, people do better. It is concerned with the design of intelligence in an artificial device. The term was coined by McCarthy in 1956. 

There are two ideas behind AI

  1.  Intelligence 
  2.  Artificial device
What is Intelligence?
A system with intelligence is expected to behave as intelligently as a human and to behave in the best possible manner.

Different interpretations have been used for defining the scope and view of Artificial Intelligence
  • AI is about designing systems that are as intelligent as humans. This view involves trying to understand human thought and an effort to built machines that emulate the human thought process. This view is the cognitive science approach to AI.
  • The second approach is best embodied by the concept of Turing test. Turing test is held that in future computers can be programmed to acquire rivalling human intelligence. 
  •  Logic and laws of thought deals with studies of ideal or rational thought process and inference. The emphasis in this case is on the inferencing mechanism, and its properties. This is how the system arrives at a conclusion, or the reasoning behind its selection of actions is very important in this point of view. The soundness and completeness of the inference mechanisms are important here.
  • The fourth view of AI is that it is the study of rational agents. This view deals with building machines that act rationally. The focus is on how the system acts and performs, and not so much on the reasoning process. A rational agent is one that acts rationally, that is , is in the best possible manner.

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